Animal Testing

Animal Testing is a procedure wherein living animals are tested upon various products in order to certify it secure for the human society.

It is really disheartening to hear, but it is the harsh reality. Imagine if one of the human is being lively tested which such hazardous items.

One of the major concerns is that people don’t care about the lives of animals as they are unable to experience the harsh reality or they don’t know what animal testing is.  They are not same as taking your companion to vet. Another aspect of animal testing is that they are forced to undergo such tests as their consent barely matters, but if it is a human, he has all the valid points to bother someone by his consent, but the animals are helpless. While exploring the topic I came to know that some of the animals are brutally beaten and even killed at the end of experiment.

Animal experiments include:

  • injecting or forcefully feeding animals with potentially harmful substances
  • exposing animals to harmful radiations
  • surgically removing animals organs or tissues to deliberately test them or to cause them damage
  • forcing animals to inhale toxic gases to befit their experiment criteria
  • subjecting animals to frightening situations to create anxiety and depression.

After reading this, one would sometimes even be feared of the scientists working in the field of testing. But it does not end here, there are certain more nuances which are yet to be showcased.

One of the weird things is Europe legislations definition of “animals”. Europe legislation Government defines vertebrae animals (fish, bird mammals and amphibions) and some invertebrates such as octopuses are only defined as “animals”.

This story started from USA in the nineteenth century.

In 1920’s, shortly after the world war, additional animal testing began to be used in development of household and cosmetic products. Today, US Food and drug Administration does not test many of the animals, yet there are some animals which are being tested on a routine basis.

An estimated 50 to 100 million vertebrates are tested annually, including over 20 million rats and mice, the counting does not stop here, there are many more animals being tested their such as dogs, pigs, sheep, rabbit, etc. And one of the shocking events are that these animals are sold by Class A dealers, i.e., business that breed dogs and other specific animals required for experiment. Others are acquired by the Class B dealers, i.e., the brokers who acquire animals from different sources for laboratory experiments.

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Beagles, being compact in size and pursuing docile temperament, they become one of the leading dogs breed to be experimented in a laboratory.

Another important term in this subject is

How Animal Testing is Performed:

  1. Draize Test: Here liquid chemicals are directly placed in the eye to estimate ability of substance to irritate or damage the eye. It is mostly tried on rabbits and moreover they are also not provided with the pain reliefs and their heads are generally held in stock.
  2. Skin Irritant: In this, chemicals are placed on a raw skin without even applying anesthetic. These substances are corrosive in nature and might also leave open wounds.
  3. Oral Toxicity: Animals are forcely fed chemicals till the point of their death in order to ascertain lethal doses.
  4. LD50(Lethal Dose 50%): The purpose of this test is to ascertain the dose of the substance needed to kill half a group of test animals.

These were some of the ways by which this cruelity is usually performed, but “where there is a will there is a way”, i.e., the alternatives.

Alternatives to Animal Testing:

  1. Instead of using animals, scientists shall use human tissues generated in the laboratories.
  2. Eliminating redundancy is also an effective method as it would reduce the number of animals being tested.
  3. Many companies use of product ingredients, that we all know shall be secured as human use without involving animal testing.
  4. Moreover, there are many replication test being conducted since years, but the concern being, that they don’t provide any new information.

There are also some ways by which we can help laboratory animals, i.e.,

  1. Support legislation to apply strict regulation on enforcement of animal testing, including protecting all animals which are subject to consumer product and medical testing.
  2. Only buy personal care and household products which does not employ new animal tests. Visit www.leapingbunny.org to find companies that do and do not test their products on animals.
  3. Contact companies about there tested products on animals and let them know you will no longer buy their products.
  4. Order the free NHES brochure ”Animal Experimentation and dissection” to distribute in your community.
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ISSUES:

  1. Why testing on animal’s is wrong?

The harm that is committed against animals should be minimized because they are not considered to be “human” but they also certainly inhibit some rights over their body. In conclusion, animal testing should be eliminated because it violates animal’s rights, it causes pain and suffering to the experimental animals, and other means of testing product toxicity are available.

  1. Why is animal testing unreliable?

They make those human trials all the more risky. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has noted that 95 percent of all drugs that are shown to be safe and effective in animal tests fail in human trials because they don’t work or are dangerous. Therefore, it just costs you double as firstly you have to test animals great effectiveness and that too if provides wrong/uncertain results then probably it should be taken seriously and thus be stopped as it does not befit certain areas for helping humans. Neither you are able to safe the humans by the tests nor are you able to protect dear animals.

  1. How does animal testing affect humans negatively?

Many drugs that appear safe and effective in animals fail in humans, or cause significant harm, and even death. A 2004 study from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration found that 92 percent of drugs entering clinical trials following animal testing fail to be approved. This is a quite certain amount of experience which proves that animals cannot determine the real clarity for humans medicine, for which they are certainly used. Their body is used unnecessarily as it just harms animals and to the contrary it also fails to help the humans for their development through the tests. You have no right to claim right on body of those who can’t express themselves and use them for your cruel mind.

Cruelty of animal testing has been shown through the following case law of bell vs state, which happened in US in the year 1988.

Case Law:

  1. Bell vs State

(761  1988  S.W.2d  847)

A man was convicted of cruelty towards animals for cutting off his dog’s ears. He appealed, arguing that the complaint was not sworn to by a person to do so by law.

FACTS:

Appellant John Wayne Bell was convicted of cruelty to animals for intentionally and knowingly torturing a dog by amputating his ears.  The dog was a Rhodesian Ridgeback cross-breed puppy belonging to Bell.  Bell was found guilty by a jury of the misdemeanor offense of cruelty to animals, and was sentenced to six months in jail and a $500 fine. The jail term was probated for the period of one year.  Bell appeals, presenting one point of error.

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ISSUE:

Whether the information was fatally defective because the complaint was not sworn to by a person authorized to do so by law.

HOLDING:

No, the information was not fatally defective because the complaint was sworn to by the Assistant County Attorney, acting as an Assistant Prosecuting Attorney.  This is one of the Assistant Prosecuting Attorney’s duties, therefore the complaint was sworn to by a person authorized to do so by law.  Bell’s point of error is invalid and his sentence is affirmed.

 

CONCLUSION:

At the end of this project, I would like to conclude by saying that everything has its pros and cons, i.e., it might be correct to test some animals for some severe issues, but using animals for each and every issue according to me is not correct. To understand the relation of humans and animals, we must know the philosophical, moral and direct theories. Philosophical thinking on the moral standing of animals is diverse and can be generally grouped into three general categories: Indirect theories, direct but unequal theories, and moral equality theories.

Everyone gives theory for living a prosperous and meaningful life but there are very few who actually live it. Animals are also one of the beautiful creations which god has gifted us just like humans. They can’t express themselves in words does not state that they are ready to suffer all the harms, they shall also be given a fair space and atmosphere to live according to their needs. Thus all those who support animal testing should understand the reality of life and support it in all the ways they can. Using a helpless specie for your own use determines how week you are internally. Therefore, one should always have a concern towards the poor animals.

SAVE ANIMALS, SAVE ENVIRONMENT…..

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

http://www.animallaw.com/Case-Law.cfm#

https://www.iep.utm.edu/anim-eth/

https://www.nhes.org/animals-in-laboratories/

https://www.crueltyfreeinternational.org/why-we-do-it/what-animal-testing

Author: Arunabh Srivastava,
Symbiosis Law School, NOIDA, 2nd Year

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