Government of India Act 1858
The Government of India Act 1858 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed on 2nd August 158. Its provisions caught up the liquidation of British Company who had to present the purpose been ruling British India below the auspices of Parliament and therefore, the transference of its functions of British Crown. Lord Palmerston, then-Prime Minister of the UK, introduced a bill for the transfer of management of the government of Asian country from the East India Company to the Crown relating the grave defects within the existing system of the government of India. However, before this bill was passed, Palmerston was forced to resign on another issue. Later Edward Stanley, 15th Earl of chapeau who would later become the primary Secretary of State for India, introduced another bill that was originally titled as “An Act for the higher Government of India” and it had been passed on 2nd August 1858. This Act given that India was to be ruled directly and within the name of the Crown.
Background and Objective of Government of India Act 1858
In the aftermath of the Revolt of 1857, nation Imperial Government was hypersensitive to growing ass outrage in India and thus, the colonial administration meant to ban the huge upheaval in close to future. On the analysis of immediate causes of the Mutiny of 1857, they ascertained that the regressive policies launched underneath Company rule was the rationale for anger amongst Indians and this, they enacted the Government of India Act 1858 simply once the tip of the war for consolidating its political system in India and utterly rescinding East India Company.
Under this enactment, the entire transference of the Company’s power in India to nation Parliamentary Government passed and thus, it sense the start of the direct rule of nation Crown in India that was referred to as nation dominion.
Provisions of Government of India Act 1858
The Government of India Act 1858 was the primary legislative reform act enforced by the British Government in India and also the provisions ordered out were as follow:
Introduction of Department System: underneath this act, the pre-existing twin system of political governance designed underneath the Pitts India Act was fully abolished with the liquidation of the Board of management and Court of administrators and a replacement political- administrative system was created that was referred to as the Department System. During this system, the top class-conscious position was bestowed to British Parliament UN agency unconditional intensive authority and management over the Indian Administration.
The secretary of State for India was aided by a 15 member committee called Council of India. UN agency can operate as a consulted body. Additionally to the current, the Governor-General of India was titled Viceroy of India. UN agencies are the direct representative of Brits Crown in India. He can supervise, administer and management the provincial governments in Republic of India. The Viceroy is accountable to the Secretary of State.
Important Changes in Government of India Act 1858
- In this Act, the rule of British East India Company was abolished.
- The second work was done; the Dual Government that was obligatory in Pits India Act 1784 was abolished.
- Both the Board of administrators and also, the Board of management bodies were removed and replaced by the Secretary of State.
The Secretary of the state is a cabinet minister in Britain and worked from there. Viceroy’s Position was additional in India, which is able to stay in India as associate agent of the Secretary of State. Earlier, the rule of India was handled by the Governor-General of India. Lord Canning was the Governor-General of India from 1856; he was created the primary Viceroy of India.
This act was passed solely in August 1858 however enforced in November 1858.
There were a lot of questions in the mind of the people of India about this act as the East India Company is going to go, the British Government is going to come.
There soldiers had a tendency tore thinking that if they accustomed ass Brits East India Company earlier, currently their job are going to be done or will be lost.
Therefore, on November 1858, a huge Durbar was put up in Allahabad and referred to Princely States, Zamindaras and lots of peoples.
Lord Canning explained this Act to the people on behalf of Queen Victoria this can be conjointly referred to as Queen Proclamation.
Lord Canning explained that:-
- The ancient beliefs of all religions of India are going to be revered.
- Honoring the footsteps of all the kinds of India, the territorial enlargement of British Rule was no longer continued.
- All the Indians got equal standing within the Civil Services Examination.
- New opportunities for education and progress are going to be created obtainable to the materialistic People in India.
- Those were the primary soldiers within the East India Company are going to .be unbroken within the British India Army.
Problem of Common Man with East India Company:
The Common man was upset as a result of he thought that these British need to alter our faith as result of voluminous Christian missionaries promoting their faith in India.
Along with this Britishers obligatory new laws on India like the widow wedding act, etc. The British started learning English in faculties.
Problems of Indian soldiers with east India Company
Indian soldiers were within the drawback as a result of he may neither keep a beard nor apply tilak. The British used to send soldiers to fight may times across the ocean. The people of that point of view believed that if somebody crosses the ocean, then his faith is corrupted.
When the British put the Enfield rifle within the hands of the soldiers, the soldiers are angry as a result of the soldiers suspected that it had the flesh of cow and pig.
Problems of Princely States with East India Company
The Princely States were additionally facing issues with East India Company as results of Princely States were ruling however that they had to pay tax to Britishers because of annexation policies.
Seeing these conditions. East India Company isn’t having the ability to handle the rule India. British rule was also demanded by the people in India.
That’s why in British Parliament one bill was passed on August 1858 those name is associate degree act of the higher Government of India n and that we are formally called Government of India 1858.
Author: Neha Ghuge,
Government Law College, Mumbai/Second Year