Role Of Renewable Energy Policies In The Protection Of Environment And Human Rights: An Analysis Of Challenges And Opportunities

Role Of Renewable Energy Policies In The Protection Of Environment And Human Rights: An Analysis Of Challenges And Opportunities
 By Pooja Kateel,
3rd year,
Christ(deemed to be University)

ABSTRACT:
Electricity has become an integral part of life. The use of energy by human beings in various forms can be traced back to the 19th century when coal was used to run steam engines and ships. Fossil fuels such as coal are one of the majorly used forms of energy across the globe. But what humans fail to understand is that this form of energy is extremely harmful to the environment. Non-renewable energy has a negative impact on the global climate and in turn on the human rights of the people. The general temperature of the environment is increasing at an alarming rate, even after the existence of conventions like the Paris Agreement on Climate change. In such a situation, the use of renewable energy is the most favourable for all the problems that fossil fuels cause. The various renewable energies that can be used, such as wind energy, solar energy, hydropower, etc… are discussed in the article. The policies which encourage and nurture the practice of using renewable energy are discussed in detail. While discussing the strategies of the government, this article also discusses the barriers to the usage of renewables. The author examines a few policies of the Ministry of new and Renewable Energy, such as- The wind-solar Hybrid Policy, the National Biofuel Policy and the Draft National Energy Policy. The policies are not prevailing only in India, but various policies have been formulated and adopted in the respective countries across the Globe. Certain counties like Russia have policies that are very successful, and which have aided in the rapid reduction in the use of fossil fuels. Despite there being so many policies in India, renewable energy contribute to only 15% of the total energy used in India. This is due to the various barriers that the renewables face before entering the market; these include- economic, political, infrastructure and social barriers. Each of these policies has challenges that are addressed in this paper. The paper also proposes solutions to have legislations which can accommodate for the use of renewables and also work towards the protection of human rights. Despite all these barriers and challenges to renewable energy, there is a broad scope for the usage of renewable energy and this article explains these opportunities if renewables are adapted as a stable source of energy.
Keywords: Renewable energy, Fossil Fuels, Sustainable Development, Solar Energy, Photovoltaic Cells, Wind Energy, Biofuels, Human Rights

Introduction
Everyone is dependent on electricity. The ones who have easy access to it want a regular supply and would want to maintain their lifestyle, and the people who have little or no access wish to improve their access to it in order to improve their quality of life. But as the demand increases, the penalties that the environment has to pay for it also increases simultaneously. Therefore, the alternative found was renewables. They are locally available, do not have or have very less amount of carbon emissions, they are sustainable, and the solar and wind energy produced need not be cooled with water either. But still, the rate of development of these forms of energy is very slow. There are many possible explanations to this; the producers might still need training in producing these forms of energy, or they might be solving technical issues.

Renewable energies are those sources of energy which cannot be depleted easily due to human activities. They are naturally replenished with time. India is one of the countries across the globe with the highest amount of renewable energy production. 13% of the total power capacity of the country is derived from the hydroelectric machine whose capacity is 45.399 GW as of 31st March 2019[1]. There are various sources of renewable energy, which include biofuel, solar energy, hydropower and wind energy. There are other sources of renewable energy, such as geothermal energy, wave tides, etc… but they are not primary sources and do not contribute to a significant part of the renewable energy produced.

The zeal to develop and nurture the renewable forms of energy was triggered by global warming, pollution and other environmental issues such as long- and short-term energy security concerns. The rate at which renewable energy use is growing is very quick compared to the anticipation of its advocates.[2] But as of 2019, the use of renewable energy must increase six times in order to control global warming to 2 Degree Celsius.[3]

In the past, nearly all the energy used was in renewable forms. The concept of non-renewable energy budded after the development of coal in the mid-19th century.[4] The oldest use of renewable energy is the use of biomass, which aided fire. Later as ships developed, they used the wind energy to channel the vessels on the water. This marked the beginning of the usage of rich renewable energy sources. This practice was observed in the ships on the River Nile and the Persian Gulf.[5] The next use of renewable energy was in the form of geothermal energy when the hot springs were used for the purposes of cooking and bathing, by the Romans.[6] Slowly the use of various other types of renewable energy became prevalent, such as solar energy, tides waves etc… The Indian demand for energy is fulfilled majorly by coal and oil. The consumption pattern is[7]:
Coal: 55%
Oil – 29.9%
Natural gas – 8.5%
Hydroelectricity – 5.6%
Nuclear energy – 1%
This pattern of energy consumption can be hazardous to the environment as it causes a lot of pollution. Coal and oil being significant sources of energy to India, they cause more harm than any use. Coal is a polluting fuel and is a major contributor to the greenhouse pollution of our nation. The high demand for oil is an economic burden to the country since the domestic oil requirements of India are fulfilled by importing oil from various countries. In the year 2004-05, 72% of the oil consumption of India was accounted for to be imported.[8] This adds to the economic burden of the country and therefore, it is not favourable to the development of the country to use oil or other forms of non-renewable energy extensively.

The encouragement of renewable energy in India started with the establishment of a Commission for Additional Sources of Energy in the Department of Science and Technology in 1981.[9] Later, in 1982 an independent department called the Department of Non-conventional Energy Sources was set up in the same direction.[10] This department was developed into the Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources in 1992. This Ministry aimed at urging and financing the policies and projects relating to the growth of renewable energy. This Ministry was renamed as the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy in 2006.[11]

Renewable Energy And Climate Change

In addition to all of this, the use of renewables as a source of stable energy also helps in combating the major climate change issues that the world is currently facing. It is one of the primary technology solutions to the problem of climate change which is majorly caused due to the heavy reliance on fossil fuels. The use of fossil fuels has a lot of externalities, but the world continues to use it as the primary source of energy. E.g., Two-thirds of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions are due to the use of energy from fossil fuels.[12] There is an immediate need to control the increase in temperature due to greenhouse gases to 2 degrees Celsius as it is agreed to in the Paris Agreement on Climate Change.[13] The world will experience an increase in temperature of about 2 degrees in another
30 to 40 years.  As per the report of the National Research Council, renewable energy has been confirmed to be the only type of energy that does not have any trails of externalities on the environment and the climate.
[14] Despite all of this, the use of renewables is very minimal based on the grounds of reliability, energy security, price etc…

Human Rights And Renewable Energy

When the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was formulated in 1948, it was created to provide for people to live with dignity, freedom, equality, justice and some fundamental human rights. The human rights express the entitlement of the people to be treated equally, to live in safety and a good and healthy environment. The climate change due to the use of the conventional sources of energy has been a constant reason for the violation of such basic rights such as the right to health, life, food, water etc… The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change declares that there is a need to accelerate the global renewable energy revolution. There is an urgent need to phase out fossil fuels as this is a necessary step for the protection of human rights.[15] Climate change is impeding the fulfilment of the rights of the people. The right to life is a fundamental human right of every person, yet, every year there is a number of premature deaths which are linked to climate crisis such as extreme weather conditions, heatwaves, floods, droughts etc… Another elementary human right is the right to health which is also being impeded through increased incidences of various respiratory malfunctions, cardiovascular diseases, allergies, mental illness etc…
The Human Rights Council Resolution 18/22[16] recognizes Human rights which are attached to climate change, but the obligations to protect these rights have always been ignored. Climate change is never seen as a reason for the violation of Human Rights. The various nations are taking steps towards the linking of climate change and human rights in their policies so that the people responsible for such violation of human rights can be made accountable for it. The problem is that one particular nation cannot be made responsible for the breach of the rights of the people. It is not necessary to link the emissions of a particular state to particular harm in order to assign the responsibility for the harm.[17] It is also essential to understand that the participation of the people in adapting and devising policies related to climate change plays a vital role in the protection of human rights. The use of renewable energy is with the larger goal of sustainable development. The Indian Judiciary has been very conscious of the need to protect the environment. In the case of Abhimanyu Rathore v. State of Himachal Pradesh,[18] the Hon’ble High court of Himachal Pradesh has expressed its increasing concerns regarding global warming and the reduction of the crop yields due to the same.

Policies

The policies for renewable energy have evolved over time. Policies supporting renewable energy vary from country to country. There is no specific policy that drives all the investments on renewable energy in the right direction. Most of the countries choose a combination of policies that fit the surroundings and environment of their country, in order to support the renewable forms of energy. A large number of states are using various processes to adapt to sustainable renewable energy. The major policies and plans that India has developed to promote renewable energy are National Policy on Biofuels, Strategic Plan for New and Renewable energy sector for the period of 2011 to 2017, National wind-solar Hybrid Policy. The NITI Aayog also signed a collaboration framework with international agencies such as the Institute of Energy Economics, Japan and also with the Energy Information Administration, USA.[19] This collaboration is in order to develop sound energy data management system for India because now India is a major energy player in the global forum and we must have reliable data management systems. After learning from these agencies, in 2018, NITI Aayog has drafted its own National Energy Policy. In the draft of this policy, one of the main objectives is Greater Sustainability and Economic Growth.[20] This objective can be achieved only when there is a considerable amount of shift from the usage of non-renewable to renewable sources of energy.

National Biofuel Policy

The main aim of the National Biofuel Policy is to have readily available biofuels so that the need for the population of the country is met. Jatropha cucas is a plant that is one of the primary sources of biofuel. When the seeds of this plant are crushed, the oil which is released by the plant is used to manufacture high-quality biofuel. This is used as jet fuel or the fuel used in standard diesel cars. This policy seeks to classify biofuels into basic biofuels such as bioethanol and biodiesel and advanced biofuels such as bio-CNG, Municipal biowaste etc… The usage and encouragement to biofuel have its own shortcomings even though it is a renewable source of energy. Growing of this plant can cause a considerable amount of harm to the environment when the cultivation is in huge numbers. The growth of this plant causes eutrophication, causes depletion in the groundwater level, acidification etc…[21] Other shortcomings of biofuels include low energy output levels. There is a requirement of more biofuel to be burnt in order to produce the same amount of energy as gasoline or any other fossil fuel. Another problem associated with biofuels is that the plants used to manufacture biofuels require a lot of irrigation, and the production of biofuels requires a lot of water. For every liter of biofuel that is produced, there is a usage of around 3.15 liters of water.[22] This causes strain on the local water resources.

Wind Solar Hybrid Policy

The main aim of the National wind-solar Hybrid Policy is to provide an outline for the promotion of a large grid connect wind-solar hybrid system. The policy also aims to nurture new technologies to combine wind and solar photovoltaic plants. It provides for a comprehensive framework to promote the grid-connected wind-solar Photovoltaic system.[23] The hybrid systems will be implemented either through Alternative current integration system or Direct Current integration system.[24]There can be different ways of integrating the grids depending on the size of each of these sources integrated and the type of technology used. The major drawback of this policy is the non-availability of the required resources at the time when it is necessary. The availability of the wind and the sunlight is contingent and might not be available at the time when it is required to be integrated and produced. The tariffs determination for the electricity will be based on the guidelines laid down by the Central Electricity Regulatory Commission. The cost reduction due to this project will be as much as 15 percent with the common land utilization and transmission system to evacuate power and equipment.[25]

Draft National Energy Policy

One of the major steps taken by the government in order to promote renewables is the National Energy Policy. This is a proposal by the NITI Aayog, which aims to increase the energy security of the country by having more self-sustained energy and depending less on the energy imports. The primary goal of this Draft policy is to plan regarding the energy in India, its mandate and the coordinating role. If the plans of this draft are executed thoroughly, it would help in sorting out governance issues among the ministries of petroleum and natural gas, new and renewable energy, coal and power.[26] As per the draft policy, the country is expected to increase the use of renewable energy, reduce energy intensity, double the per capita energy consumption and triple the per capita electricity consumption.[27]

On A Global Platform

In 2010, about 45 countries across the globe set a sort of energy target. Most of these countries were in Europe.[28] Within seven years, the number had increased four times and had raised to 168 and had spread across the world not being confined only to Europe. In 2010, Canada had the Federal Renewable Fu
els Regulation.
 This was a mechanism to have certain mandatory schemes for all consumers. It not only encouraged the use of renewables as far as possible but also made it mandatory in as many places as possible. This policy also contains regulatory instruments in order to maintain a sustainable environment by prescribing punishments. The target of this policy is to have biofuels that can sustain a major portion of transportation in the country.[29] In the USA, the rise of renewables started with the State Level Renewable Portfolio Standards. This prescribed the mandatory requirements by consumers, Regulatory bodies to keep a check, Research and Development organizations etc… Under this policy, each state of the USA has a mandate of a certain amount of energy to be used in the form of renewable energy. Each state chooses its own combination of renewable energy to fulfill this mandate.[30] In Russia, The Decree No. 449 on the Mechanism for the Promotion of Renewable Energy on the wholesale Electricity and Market is the highlighted Record that constitutes the key Renewable energy Policy Framework in the country. Through this mechanism, contracts are awarded to projects with the lowest capital costs. In case these projects are not able to meet the previously agreed demands, then their remuneration will be reduced accordingly.[31] In the country of China, the Renewable Energy Green Certificate and Trading Mechanism was launched in 2017 with the target to combine multiple Renewable energies to produce Power. In the trial program, the solar Photovoltaic onshore wind power producers would be issued green certificates which they had to sell to private and state-owned businesses. Under this plan, the use of green certificates would give the businesses the benefits of subsidies i.e. feed-in-tariff.[32] In Australia, the Australian Renewable Energy Agency was established in 2012 by the Australian Government to encourage the practice of using renewables. The main aim of this agency is to fund renewable energy projects and their Research and Development. This is one of the projects which has prime significance in the upcoming culture of usage of renewables in the country of Australia.[33] Even though these major leaps are taken by these countries, technological and financial factors still act as barriers to completely drift from fossil fuels to renewables.
Challenges
All over the world, the various governments have been promoting the usage of alternative sources of energy to ensure energy security, mitigating Carbon-di-oxide emissions, etc… Though the use of renewables will promote sustainable development, it has its own challenges. It was observed that the target of the National Action Plan on Climate change, the aim was a production of about 8-9% of energy for the year 2012-12 but the national achievement was only 4.28 percent.[34]
  • Solar Energy: One of the significant issues with the usage of solar energy is the use of cadmium in the cadmium telluride solar cells. Cadmium in its metallic form is a highly toxic substance and accumulates in the ecological food chains.[35]This harm caused by the cadmium can be completely eliminated by using the Photovoltaic panels instead of electricity from burning coal.[36] Another contemporary problem with Solar Energy is that solar energy must be used right away to be most efficient. The storage of solar energy is very expensive, and this makes it very unreasonable to use solar energy. The smartest way to solve this is to use solar energy during the day and take the energy from the Grid Photo-Voltaic systems in the night, as they have traditionally used rechargeable batteries to store the excess of electricity.[37]
  • Wind Energy: One of the highest and most alarming concerns of using windmills and turbines to produce electricity through wind energy is the high mortality rates of bats and other birds. The mortality rates of the bats in fully operating turbines are 5.4 times more than at curtailed i.e. non-operational turbines.[38] The wildlife conservation groups have raised serious concerns about this and the public acceptance of wind energy development has reduced. This can be reduced by choosing the site for the installation of windmills carefully.
  • Hydroelectricity: Extensive areas upstream the dam is submerged, destroying the riverine valley, forest land, marshland, etc… this is because large reservoirs are required for the operation of hydroelectric power. When all the water is stopped at the reservoirs, there are changes in the amount of water flowing in the rivers and this reduces the ability of the river to deposit silt on the banks. Another social problem of hydroelectricity is that the people living in the area where the reservoir is planned should
    be related. In 2000, around 40-80 million people were displaced as a result of the building of damns and diversion of rivers.[39]
  • Biofuels: The use of Biofuels serves as an excellent alternative energy, but it comes with its own challenges. When the mature trees are cut down, it leads to large scale deforestation and soil erosion. The earth requires some minimum amount of biomass in it in order to support the soil and prevent erosion. Aldehydes such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde are produced when the alcohols are oxidized in order to process biogas.[40] Many of these aldehydes which are produced are toxic to the living cells; formaldehyde causes nose bleeding and acetaldehyde is a reason for many other lung and respiratory abnormalities.[41].

The usage of renewables to attain sustainability has its own challenges. As per an expert group of the NITI Aayog,[42] the 175 GW capacity target, which is supposed to be achieved by 2022, is more of a technical challenge rather than a financial one. E.g., Solar energy cannot be used throughout the year to generate electricity and there can be a sudden rise or fall in the amount of sunlight available. Therefore, the generation of resources is not steady. The change in the amount of energy available, causes inconvenience for the manager of the production stations. One of the most publicized barriers to renewable energy is capital costs. The average cost of installation of solar systems varied from $2000/kW TO $3700/kW.[43] This high investment is risky and therefore banks and other financial institutions lend money for the investment at a high rate of interest. This makes it difficult for investors to justify their investment. Moreover, people are reluctant to use the new sources of energy which are renewable sources. One of the main reasons behind this attitude of people is that there is no stringent provision in any statute of the Parliament to make it binding on people to make maximum use of renewables. The Annual Report of the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy states that in the year 2017-18, even after the promotion of renewable energy, the public is still using coal as their primary source of energy.[44]  Though there is a draft of the National Renewable Energy Act of 2015, there exists no appropriate statute which promotes the use of renewable energy and the penalties for the non-compliance of the same. Since renewable energy is a developing industry, there must be guidelines which should be laid down to help the industrialists and also to penalize any malpractices in the field.

Conclusion

Through this article, we have seen that the world has been dependent on energy from fossil fuels for the past 150 years approximately, and the trend is continuing. This trend must be reversed in a shorter period of time. The use of fossils is not suitable and is extremely unsustainable with respect to Global Warming and Energy Security. The potential for renewable energy varies greatly but sways towards being more advantageous to mankind. This article highlights that, despite the policy measure taken by the government, the use of renewable sources of energy is not feasible for the country in the current economic scenario because of its shortcomings. We also notice through this article that there is a positive revolution that the world has adapted to slowly drift towards the renewables. The practice of using renewables can be encouraged only through extensive research by the universities and other organizations in order to come up with novel techniques to get rid of all the barriers. There is an urgent need to encourage this practice because the use of renewables has the ability to influence a host of problems faced by the world currently, which include- environmental problems, acid rain, climate change etc…  The summary of the various barriers to the entry of the renewables into the Market is:
  1. Economic Barriers: Biofuels are expensive to produce
  2. Knowledge Barrier: The public who are supposed to make a decision on the biofuels lack the knowledge in the field of renewables.
  3. Infrastructure barriers: The production of biofuels might require special machinery and new technology which may be lacking in the country.
  4. Political barriers: The renewables are unable to meet the energy demand that fossil fuels could meet.
Due to these shortcomings, the role of renewable energy is very short in the energy mix and energy demand of this country. Unless the production is increased, the solution to the problem of non-renewables will be difficult to achieve. There are multiple ministries announcing different schemes and policies for the development of the renewables, but it would be better from the point of view of implementation if the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy co-ordinates all these policies together. The Central Legislation should come up with provisions under the Environmental Protection Act or any other suitable statute which makes it compulsory for the people to use a certain amount of renewable energy in their total consumption of energy. This disincentive of penalty will encourage people to shift towards renewables gradually. For
the global betterment, the research and development in the field of energy are critical since this is the only way to combat all the problems caused due to the emission of gases and other harmful substances through the use of fossil fuels.
Climate change has impacted a range of people across the globe in various ways. It impedes the enjoyment of numerous individual and collective rights of people. One of the main reasons for climate change is the use of fossils. These various rights of people are inextricably linked with each other. Progress can be made only if we act on them collectively. Having well-drafted legislation that promotes the use of renewables will help in the protection of human rights. There is a need for resource planning for the various processes that integrate the renewables to improve efficiency. Such a plan should survey all the available forms of renewables, their transmission and distribution networks and ensure the highest degree of efficiency. Such legislation should also incorporate a particular body or institution which ensures that the stable policies for renewable energies are implemented. This will also ensure sustainable development by having secure energy services which have low environmental impact.




[1] All India Installed Capacity (In Mw) Of Power Stations, Central Electricity Authority, (Jun25, 2019, 01:21 PM), http://www.cea.nic.in/reports/monthly/installedcapacity/2019/installed_capacity-03.pdf

[2] Lango Deen, Fueling, The Future: What’s Happening in Renewable Energy? 30 Hispanic Engineer and Information Technology, 22, 26-29 (2015)

[3] Global Energy Transformation: Roadmap to 2050, international renewable energy agency, (Jun25, 2019, 02:21 AM), https://www.irena.org/publications/2019/Apr/Global-energy-transformation-A-roadmap-to-2050-2019Edition

[4] Mohamed T. El-Ashry, National Policies to Promote Renewable Energy, 1 The Alternative Energy Future, 98, 105-110 (2012)

[5] Asad Bin Saif, Pioneer in Wind Energy Source, 31 Economic and Political Weekly, 47, 68-76 (1996) 8

[6] Boyle & Godfrey, Renewable Energy, 12 Oxford University Press, 444, 456-460 (2004)

[7] S.C. Bhattacharya & Chinmoy Jana, Renewable energy in India: Historical developments and prospects,14, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Review (2007)

[8] Integrated Energy Policy Report of the Expert Committee, Government of India-Planning Commission New Delhi, (Jun25, 2019, 01:42 PM) http://planningcommission.gov.in/reports/genrep/rep_intengy.pdf

[9]Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, (Jun25, 2019, 01:44 PM)  https://mnre.gov.in/history-background

[10] ibid

[11] ibid

[12] Climate Policy drives shift to Renewable Energy, International Renewable Energy Agency, (Jul.20, 2019, 01:32 PM) https://www.irena.org/-/media/Files/IRENA/Agency/Topics/Climate-Change/IRENA_Climate_policy_2017.pdf

[13] Paris Agreement on Climate Change, United Nations, 2015, (Jul.19, 2019, 11:42 PM) https://unfccc.int/sites/default/files/english_paris_agreement.pdf 

[14] Hidden Costs of Energy, National Research Council, 2009, (Jul.19, 2019, 11:42 PM) https://www.ourenergypolicy.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/hidden.pdf

[15] Clean Energy Transition needs to Accelerate, United Nations Climate Change, (Jan 31, 2020, 11:29 PM) https://unfccc.int/news/clean-energy-transition-needs-to-accelerate

[16] Human Rights Council Resolution 18/22, United Nations General Assembly, (Jan 30, 2020, 11:42 PM) https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/ClimateChange/A.HRC.RES.18.22.pdf

[17] John H Knox, Linking Human Right and Climate Change at the United Nations 33 Harvard Environmental Law Review(2009) 477, 489

[18] 2014 SCC Onl HP 5202

[19]Anil K Jain, NITI Aayog Collaborate with Top Global Energy Think-tanks, Niti Aayog, (Jun.25, 2019, 07:42 PM), https://niti.gov.in/content/niti-aayog-collaborates-top-global-energy-think-tanks

[20]Draft, National Energy Policy, Niti Aayog- Government Of India, (Jun.25, 2019, 07:46 PM), https://niti.gov.in/writereaddata/files/new_initiatives/NEP-ID_27.06.2017.pdf

[21]R Blanchard et al., A review of biofuels in India: challenges and opportunities, Loughborough University Institutional Repository, (Jun25, 2019, 07:50 PM), https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/dspace-jspui/bitstream/2134/19310/1/BLANCHARD%202015%20WEEC%20India%20Biomass%20Barriers%20and%20Policy%20Issues_Final.pdf

[22] Water and Biofuels, (Jun25, 2019, 07:53 PM), http://biofuel.org.uk/water.html

[23] Wind solar hybrid policy, Ministry of New & Renewable Energy (Wind Energy Division), (Jul 17, 2019, 07:15 AM), https://mnre.gov.in/sites/default/files/webform/notices/National-Wind-Solar-Hybrid-Policy.pdf

[24] Ibid.

[25] Hongxing Yang et al., A Novel Optimization sizing model for hybrid solar-wind power generation system, 81 Elsevier 76, 78(2007)

[26] Yogima Sharma, NITI Aayog proposes nodal energy ministry to streamline governance, Economic Times, (Jul.16, 2019, 11:43 PM),  https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/economy/policy/niti-aayog-proposes-nodal-energy-ministry-to-streamline-governance/articleshow/65190128.cms?from=mdr

[27] Draft National Energy Policy, NITI Aayog- Government of India, (Jul.16, 2019, 11:48 PM), https://niti.gov.in/writereaddata/files/new_initiatives/NEP-ID_27.06.2017.pdf

[28] Renewable Policies, International Energy Agency,(Jul.19, 2019, 10:59 PM) https://www.iea.org/topics/renewables/policies/

[29] Federal Renewable Fuels Regulations, International Energy Agency, (Jul.20, 2019, 04:43 AM) https://www.iea.org/policiesandmeasures/pams/canada/name-152533-en.php?s=dHlwZT1yZSZzdGF0dXM9T2s,&return=PG5hdiBpZD0iYnJlYWRjcnVtYiI-PGEgaHJlZj0iLyI-SG9tZTwvYT4gJnJhcXVvOyA8YSBocmVmPSIvcG9saWNpZXNhbmRtZWFzdXJlcy8iPlBvbGljaWVzIGFuZCBNZWFzdXJlczwvYT4gJnJhcXVvOyA8YSBocmVmPSIvcG9saWNpZXNhbmRtZWFzdXJlcy9yZW5ld2FibGVlbmVyZ3kvIj5SZW5ld2FibGUgRW5lcmd5PC9hPjwvbmF2Pg,,

[30] State Level Renewable Portfolio Standards, International Energy Agency, (Jul.19, 2019, 10:59 AM) https://www.iea.org/policiesandmeasures/pams/unitedstates/name-21065-en.php?s=dHlwZT1yZSZzdGF0dXM9T2s,&return=PG5hdiBpZD0iYnJlYWRjcnVtYiI-PGEgaHJlZj0iLyI-SG9tZTwvYT4gJnJhcXVvOyA8YSBocmVmPSIvcG9saWNpZXNhbmRtZWFzdXJlcy8iPlBvbGljaWVzIGFuZCBNZWFzdXJlczwvYT4gJnJhcXVvOyA8YSBocmVmPSIvcG9saWNpZXNhbmRtZWFzdXJlcy9yZW5ld2FibGVlbmVyZ3kvIj5SZW5ld2FibGUgRW5lcmd5PC9hPjwvbmF2Pg,,

[31] The Decree No. 449 on the Mechanism for the Promotion of Renewable Energy on the wholesale Electricity and Market, International Energy Agency, (Jul.18, 2019, 10:23 PM) https://www.iea.org/policiesandmeasures/pams/russia/name-44254-en.php?s=dHlwZT1yZSZzdGF0dXM9T2s,&return=PG5hdiBpZD0iYnJlYWRjcnVtYiI-PGEgaHJlZj0iLyI-SG9tZTwvYT4gJnJhcXVvOyA8YSBocmVmPSIvcG9saWNpZXNhbmRtZWFzdXJlcy8iPlBvbGljaWVzIGFuZCBNZWFzdXJlczwvYT4gJnJhcXVvOyA8YSBocmVmPSIvcG9saWNpZXNhbmRtZWFzdXJlcy9yZW5ld2FibGVlbmVyZ3kvIj5SZW5ld2FibGUgRW5lcmd5PC9hPjwvbmF2Pg,,

[32] Renewable Energy Green Certificate and Trading Mechanism, International Energy Agency, (Jul.16, 2019, 02:34 PM) https://www.iea.org/policiesandmeasures/pams/china/name-170543-en.php?s=dHlwZT1yZSZzdGF0dXM9T2s,&return=PG5hdiBpZD0iYnJlYWRjcnVtYiI-PGEgaHJlZj0iLyI-SG9tZTwvYT4gJnJhcXVvOyA8YSBocmVmPSIvcG9saWNpZXNhbmRtZWFzdXJlcy8iPlBvbGljaWVzIGFuZCBNZWFzdXJlczwvYT4gJnJhcXVvOyA8YSBocmVmPSIvcG9saWNpZXNhbmRtZWFzdXJlcy9yZW5ld2FibGVlbmVyZ3kvIj5SZW5ld2FibGUgRW5lcmd5PC9hPjwvbmF2Pg,,

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[35] Stenbjörn Styring, Solar Fuels: Vision and Concepts, 41k, Supplement 2, Springer, 156, 158(2012)

[36] Priya Rajan Trivedi, Renewable Energy 157(2014 ed. 2014)

[37] Ibid at 159.

[38] Edward B Arnett et al., Altering Turbine speed reduces bat mortality at wind energy facilities, 9, Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 209-214, 209(2011)

[39] Dams and Development- a new Framework for Decision Making, The Report Of The World Commission On Dams, (July15, 2019, 11:18 PM), https://www.internationalrivers.org/sites/default/files/attached-files/world_commission_on_dams_final_report.pdf

[40] Martha J Groom et al., Biofuels and Biodiversity: Pr
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[41] P.S. Vassar et al., Physiochemical Effects of Aldehydes on Human Erythrocyte, 53, The Journal Of Cell Biology, 809, 811-814 (1972)

[42] Draft National Energy Policy, NITI Aayog- Government of India, (Jul.19, 2019, 10:59 PM), https://niti.gov.in/writereaddata/files/new_initiatives/NEP-ID_27.06.2017.pdf


[43] R Blanchard et al., Supra note 14

[44] Annual Report 2017-18, Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, (Jun25, 2019, 07:57 PM), https://mnre.gov.in/file-manager/annual-report/2017-2018/EN/pdf/chapter-3.pdf
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