Sex and rape

Shubhi jaiswar
B.A.LL.B. 1st year
Hemwati nandan Bahuguna Garhwal University
(Pandit purnanand Tiwari law college Haridwar)

Sex and rape: –
Both sex and rape are different incidents that affect humans in different ways. Both these incidents are related to the importance of human beings, but both have a difference of ground and sky. Sex which happens with the consent of the male and female is on the strength of their will. On the other hand, rape is against the consent of any woman or man, not only of the woman, but sometimes these incidents also happen with minor children and men.

Sex: –

Organisms of many species are specialized into male and female varieties, each known as a sex. sexual reproduction involves the combining and mixing of genetic traits: specialized cells known as gametes combine to form offspring that inherit traits from each parent. the gametes produced by an organism define its sex: males produce small gametes (e.g. spermatozoa, or sperm, in animals) while females produce large gametes (ova, or egg cells). Individual organisms which produce both male and female gametes are termed hermaphroditic. gametes can be identical in form and function (known as isogamy), but, in many cases, an asymmetry has evolved such that two different types of gametes (heterogametes) exist (known as anisogamy).

physical differences are often associated with the different sexes of an organism; These sexual dimorphisms can reflect the different reproductive pressures the sexes experience. For instance, mate choice and sexual selection can accelerate the evolution of physical differences between the sexes.

among humans and other mammals, males typically carry an X and a Y chromosome (XY), whereas females typically carry two X chromosomes (XX), which are a part of the XY sex-determination system. Humans may also be intersex. Other animals have different sex-determination systems, such as the ZW system in birds, the X0 system in insects, and various environmental systems, for example in crustaceans. fungi may also have more complex allelic mating systems, with sexes not accurately described as male, female, or hermaphroditic.

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Rape (motive, effects or STI):

rape is a type of sexual assault usually involving sexual intercourse or other forms of sexual penetration carried out against a person without that person’s consent. the act may be carried out by physical force, coercion, abuse of authority, or against a person who is incapable of giving valid consent, such as one who is unconscious, incapacitated, has an intellectual disability or is below the legal age of consent. the term rape is sometimes used interchangeably with the term sexual assault.
   

Motives: –
The WHO states that the principal factors that lead to the perpetration of sexual violence against women, including rape, are:

1) beliefs in family honor and sexual purity;
2) attitudes of male sexual entitlement;
3) weak legal sanctions for sexual violence.
No single facet explains the motivation for rape; the underlying motives of rapists can be multi-faceted. Several factors have been proposed: anger, power, sadism, sexual gratification, or evolutionary proclivities. However, some factors have significant causal evidence supporting them. american clinical psychologist David Lisak, co-author of a 2002 study of undetected rapists, says that compared with non-rapists, both undetected and convicted rapists are measurably more angry at women and more motivated by a desire to dominate and control them, are more impulsive, disinhibited ,anti-social, hypermasculine, and less empathic.

Effects: –
One metric used by the WHO to determine the severity of global rates of coercive, forced sexual activity was the question “Have you ever been forced to have sexual intercourse against your will?” Asking this question produced higher positive response rates than being asked, whether they had ever been abused or raped.
The WHO report describes the consequences of sexual abuse: Gynecological disorders
Reproductive disorders Sexual disorders
Infertility
Pelvic inflammatory disease pregnancy complications Miscarriage
Sexual dysfunction
Acquiring sexually transmitted infections, including HIV / AIDS Mortality from injuries
Increased risk of suicide Depression
Chronic pain
Psychosomatic disorders Unsafe abortion
Unwanted pregnancy

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sexually transmitted infections: –

Those who have been raped have relatively more reproductive tract infections than those not been raped. HIV can be transmitted through rape. Acquiring AIDS through rape puts people risk of suffering psychological problems. acquiring HIV through rape may lead to the behaviors that create risk of injecting drugs. Acquiring sexually transmitted infections increases the risk of acquiring HIV. The belief that having sex with a virgin can cure HIV / AIDS exists in parts of Africa. this leads to the rape of girls and women.

In india: –

India has been characterized as one of the “countries with the lowest per capita rates of rape”. Many rapes go unreported in various countries including India. In India, consensual sex given on the false promise of marriage constitutes rape. the willingness to report the rape has increased in recent years, after several incidents of rape received widespread media attention and triggered public protest. this led the Government of India to reform its penal code for crimes of rape and sexual assault. more than 7,200 minors – 1.6 in 100,000 minors – are raped each year in India.

Pocso: –

The Protection of Children from Sexual Offenses (POCSO) Act, 2012 was enacted to
provide a robust legal framework for the protection of children from offenses of sexual assault, sexual harassment and pornography, while safeguarding the interest of the child at every stage of the judicial process. The framing of the Act seeks to put children first by making it easy to use by including mechanisms for child-friendly reporting, recording of evidence, investigation and speedy trial of offences through designated Special Courts. the new Act [11] provides for a variety of offences under which an accused can be punished.
It recognizes forms of penetration other than penile-vaginal penetration and criminalises acts of immodesty against children too. Offences under the act include: Penetrative Sexual Assault:. insertion of penis / object / another body part in child’s vagina / urethra / anus / mouth, or asking the child to do so with them or some other person

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Sexual Assault: When a person touches the child, or makes the child touch them or someone else

Sexual Harassment: passing sexually colored remark, sexual gesture / noise, repeatedly following, flashing, etc.
Child Pornography


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