In 1945, nations were in ruins. World War II was over and the world want peace. Same year, 51 countries gathered in San Francisco to sign a document. The Document was Charter creating a new organisation named as United Nation. UN is maintaining international peace and security. It is providing humanitarian assistance to those in need. Also upholding international law, protecting human rights and democracy.
Many country witness various cross border disputes like conflicts relating to land, water, trade and military attacks and other horrific events. United nation is well known throughout the world which is often described as ‘Parliament of Nation’. United Nations plays a central role in reducing international tension, maintain international peace and security and other important objectives include developing friendly relations among countries based on respect for the principles of equal rights and self-determination of peoples; achieving worldwide cooperation to solve international economic, social, cultural, and humanitarian problems; respecting and promoting human rights; and putting an end to fighting already underway.
The United Nations is an international organization founded on 24 October 1945. Currently, 193 countries are the Members of UN. There are six official languages of the UN- Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish.
ORGANS OF UNITED NATIONS
The main six organs of the United Nation. All the organs of UN are based at United Nations Headquarters in New York except the International Court of Justice.
- The General Assembly,
- The Security Council,
- The Economic and Social Council,
- The Trusteeship Council,
- The International Court of Justice, and
- The UN Secretariat.
The General Assembly is the main deliberative, policy-making, decision maker and representative organ of the UN. All 193 Member States of the UN are represented in the General Assembly, making it the only UN body with universal representation. Every year, in September, the full UN membership meets in the General Assembly Hall in New York for the annual General Assembly session, and general debate, which many heads of state attend, address and discuss any matter arising under UN Charter.
Decisions on international peace and security, admitting new member state and UN budgetary matters, require a two-thirds majority of the General Assembly. Decisions on other questions are by simple majority. The assembly`s lasts a year, starting in mid-September (the busy season) to December. Each year the general assembly elects a president who presides over these meeting as a neutral party.
The work of assembly is carried out by its 6 committees. The main committees of the UN General Assembly are
- First Committee (Disarmament & International Security);
- Second Committee (Economic & Financial);
- Third Committee (Social, Humanitarian & Cultural);
- Fourth Committee (Special Political & Decolonization);
- Fifth Committee (Administrative & Budgetary) and
- Sixth Committee (Legal)
The Security Council has primary responsibility, under the UN Charter, for the maintain international peace and security. It has 15 Members including 5 permanents members and 10 non-permanent members. These 5 permanent members plays key role in formation of United Nation after World War II. Each Member has one vote and does not hold regular meetings. The Security Council can be can be convened any time whenever a threat to the international peace arises. It calls upon the parties to a dispute to settle it by peaceful means and recommends methods of adjustment.
Oftenly, the Security Council can resort to imposing sanctions or even authorize the use of force to maintain or restore international peace and security. The Security Council also recommends to the General Assembly for the appointment of the new Secretary-General and on the appointment of new Members to the United Nations.
Economic and Social Council
Economic and Social Council is the principal body for coordinating the economic and social work of UN and UN system… It has 54 Members which are chosen for equal geographical representation, elected by the General Assembly for term of three-years. It is the United Nations’ central platform for reflection, debate, and innovative thinking on sustainable development and aimed at promoting economic growth of developing countries, supporting human rights and fostering world cooperation to fight poverty and under-development.
To meet specific need, the General Assembly has set up number of specific agencies such as World Health Organization(WHO), UNESCO and many more, and programmes like UN Development Programme (UNDP), UN Children`s fund. The work of these programmes and are coordinated by ECOSOC. It serves as the heart of UN system and its specialized agencies in the economic, social and environmental fields, supervising subsidiary and expert bodies.
The Trusteeship Council was assigned under Chapter XIII of UN Charter, to provide international supervision for 11 Trust Territories-former colonies or dependent territories that had been placed under the International Trusteeship system, and ensure that adequate steps were taken to prepare the Territories for self-government and independence. By 1994, all Trust Territories had attained self-government or independence. The system was created after World War II to promote the advancement of inhabitants of those dependent territories. Since the creation of Trusteeship council, over 70 colonial territories has gained independence because of United Nation.
International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice, act as the World Court, is the principal judicial organ of the United Nation was established in June 1945 by the Charter of the United Nations and began work in April 1946. The seat of the Court is at the Peace Palace in The Hague, Netherlands. Of the six principal organs of the United Nations, it is the only one not located in New York (U.S.A.). The Court decides disputes between nations not between individuals, based on the voluntary participation of the States concerned. If a State who agrees to participate in a proceeding, is obligated to comply with the Court’s decision.
The International Court of Justice is composed of 15 judges elected to nine-year terms of office by the United Nations General Assembly and the Security Council (sitting independently of each other). The Court has jurisdiction on two types of issues, in accordance with international law, legal disputes submitted to it by States (contentious cases) and request for advisory opinions on legal questions referred to it by authorized United Nations organs and specialized agencies (advisory proceedings).
The Secretariat comprises of the international staff members working at UN headquarters as well as UN offices in Geneva, Vienna, Nairobi, and other locations. Offices and departments coordinate with each other and to ensure cordial relationship in order to carry out day to day work of the organisation. Secretariat is responsible for servicing other organs of UN and govern all the programmes and policies laid down by them. The secretariat is headed by Secretary-General who is appointed by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council for a five-year, and responsible for the implementation of all the decision taken by other organs of UN.
UN ON COVID-19
Fake and fraud news is virus itself for environment. Misinformation is spreading all over the world in relation to Coronavirus pandemic and consequently hampering our ability to make progress in many spread from fighting against the virus to curbing racism. Wrong information exploits our weakness and emotions.
United Nation launched a “PAUSE” campaign to tackle the growing threat of misinformation online during the pandemic circumstances. The campaign will challenge people to stop the habit of sharing unauthentic, shocking or emotive content impulsively and without questioning its accuracy. The campaign was launched on World Social Media Day (30 June), is part of a larger UN initiative called Verified which aims at encouraging accurate news and sharing verified information and with the help of more than 10,000 information volunteers who have already signed up to the effort. Around 130 UN members issued the statement on the need to address this issue and make this infodemic rather than spreading misleading information. High need to take care before sharing any forwards or disturbing content online.
Author: Akriti Mishra,
Veer Narmad South Gujarat University, Surat 2nd Year Law student