Women empowerment is when women and girls have the power to act freely to exercise their rights to be full and equal members of society. Women empowerment is empowering the woman to make their own decisions for their personal development as well as social development. it Can be defined in several ways, notably by accepting woman’s points of view or by making an effort to seek them out by raising the status of women through education. Women’s empowerment involves increasing and enhancing women, social, economic, political and legal strength to ensure women’s equal rights. All obstacles to the emancipation and equality of women are found in cultural norms.
Globally women have fewer opportunities to participate in the economy than men, have fewer opportunities for basic education and higher education, have greater health and safety risks and have less political representation. Ensuring women’s rights and providing them with. Realize their full potential is not only critical to achieving gender equality but also critical to achieving broad International Development goals.
Preamble, the fundamental rights obligations and the guiding principles of the Constitution of India contains the principle of gender equality.
The Constitution not only grants equality to women, but it also authorizes the state to take action, discriminatory measures in favour of women within the framework of democracy. Our laws, development policies, plans and programs aim to improve the condition of women in different areas.
The parameters of women’s empowerment are to improve women’s self-efficiency And confidence eliminate discrimination and forms of violence against women and girls. Build a positive image of women in society and recognize their contribution in the social, economic and political fields.
Establish and strengthen alliances with civil society, especially women’s organizations and forces. Constitutional and legal provisions to protect women’s rights. Implement women’s education so that women can obtain equal status in the community and throughout the country. In all aspects of social, political and economic development. Organize and establish women’s groups and individuals and organizations committed to feminist goals Issue Cooperate with national and international non-governmental organizations and institutions throughout networks and coordination to achieve specific objectives for the well being and development of women.
Indian women must be empowered to overcome their situation and give them an independent role in Indian society. Empowering women is an unnecessary right of women. They must have corresponding rights to contribute to society, economy, education, and politics. This is very important for women, self-esteem and society.
The most common and inhuman discrimination against women is based on biased opinions.
Discrimination against girls begins at birth. Boys are more popular than girls. Therefore girls are a common practice in India. The trial Indian girl’s face at birth is just the beginning of the struggle to be seen and heard in the life
During all these years, attention has been focused solely on the development and design of new programs, policies and programs, and little attention has been paid to the appropriate surveillance system and the implementation of myopia. For example, despite the presence of the prenatal Diagnostic Technique Act and various health programs such as Janani Suraksha Yojna and the national rural Health Mission, our country has a disproportionate sex ratio and maternal mortality was as high
Although, there are several laws to protect women from violations of various types There has been a significant increase in incidents of rape, Extortion, acid attack and assault.
Some challenges are plagued by women’s rights in India. Addressing these issues will directly benefit the empowerment of India. Although, the country has made rapid progress in education since its independence. There is a huge gap between men and women. Although 82.14%. Of adult men have education In India. Only 65.46% of adult women can read and write. Gender biased exist in higher education and specialized vocational training, which has caused a great blow to female and achieved the highest leadership position in any field.
Poverty is considered to be the greatest threat to World Peace and the eradication of poverty must be a national goal because it is as important as eradicating illiteracy. As a result, women are exploited as domestic servants. Women’s Health and safety issues are fundamental to the well being of a country and are an important factor in measuring the empowerment of women in the country.
This inequality is reflected in employment and promotion. In an environment where government offices and private companies are personalized and dominated by men, women face numerous obstacles. To gender bias in health and nutrition, the female mortality rate is abnormally high, further reducing the population, especially in Asia, Africa and China.
the first and foremost priority should be given to the education of women, which is the grass root problem. Hence education for women has to be paid special attention.
Awareness programs need to be organized for creating awareness among women, especial those lly belonging to weaker sections about rights.
women should Be allowed to work and should be provided with enough safety and support to work. They should be provided with proper wages and work at par with men so that their status can be elevated in society.
Strict implementation of programs and acts would be there to curb the malpractice that is prevalent in society.
Judiciary has also made efforts in the same line in cases like,
Air India Vs Nargesh Meerza, [(1981) 4 SCC 335]
This case involves equal rights for women. In this case, the Supreme Court rejected the provision that the flight attendant retire at the time of marriage or first pregnancy at the age of 35 or 4 years before completing service, and held that this was arbitrary and unreasonable, and it clearly violated Article 14 of the Law. Constitution of India.
Vishaka Sawhney Vs State of Rajasthan, AIR 1997 SC 3011, (1998)
This is a well-known case, and it is also an alert that can prevent women from being sexually harassed in the workplace.
In this landmark ruling, the Supreme Case determined that sexual harassment in the workplace violated articles 15 and 21 of the Constitution, and formulated detailed guidelines to prevent sexual harassment of professional women in the workplace before it was approve the law for this purpose. Recently in 2013 The Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (PREVENTION, PROHIBITION and REDRESSAL) Act, 2013 was passed by the parliament of India.
Sarla Mudgal Vs Union of India 1995, AIR 1531, 1995 SCC (3) 635
This case exposed the blatant exploitation of women’s personal laws. In this case, an Indian man who was married under Hindu law wanted to have a second wife and converted to Islam. After his second marriage, he returned to Hinduism. The second wife claimed that she was not protected by any personal laws.In view of this case the Supreme Court directed the union government to implement uniform civil code.
Tuka Ram And Anr vs State Of Maharashtra, 1979 AIR 185, 1979 SCR (1) 810
As we all know, Mathura’s rape case was a prison rape case. It is alleged that Mathura, a young tribal woman, was raped by two police officers on the premises of the police station. However, the Supreme Court ruled that the defendant was not guilty. This decision sparked strong public outcry and protests, which eventually led to the amendment of the rape law in India via The Criminal Law (Second Amendment) Act 1983 (No. 46)
The government and some NGOs are working to empower women by raising awareness. The government is carrying out large scale oars. A project for the development of women’s education and skills to achieve economic independence. Societies thinking is also slowly changing, increasingly not, percentage of women receiving a quality education, but the real meaning of women’s empowerment is achieved when gender inequality is addressed. We must give them equal pay and equal respect with men. I’m looking forward to such a country.
Author: Priya Waingankar,
Karnataka State law university,hubli